Tuesday, December 7, 2021

Tuesday, December 7. 2021

Today's schedule is CDAB...

Do over. Since we had a snow day yesterday we'll do what we planned to have done yesterday

 

Sunday, December 5, 2021

Monday, December 6. 2021

Today's schedule is ABCD

A Block Criminology - I'd like you to work on the Scooby Doo questions. Take a watch of the old school "Scooby Doo Where are You?" episode Jeepers, It's the Jaguaro (it may help with question #4 below)



Now although Scooby Doo is fun, we need to look at it through a more critical eye. So, take a look at the elements of Media Literacy...Not only are media constructions (made by humans) but that the receiving audience interprets the meaning of the message themselves. Remember, Scooby Doo is media and media are constructions - Media products are created by individuals who make conscious and unconscious choices about what to include, what to leave out and how to present what is included. These decisions are based on the creators’ own point of view, which will have been shaped by their opinions, assumptions and biases – as well as media they have been exposed to. As a result of this, media products are never entirely accurate reflections of the real world – even the most objective documentary filmmaker has to decide what footage to use and what to cut, as well as where to put the camera – but we instinctively view many media products as direct representations of what is real...now I know Scooby Doo is a cartoon, but for the questions above please Feel free to use the TV Tropes sites on Scooby Doo characters and Scooby Doo Analysis Remember the questions...
  1. What assumptions or beliefs do Scooby Doo’s creators have that are reflected in the content?
  2. How does this make you feel, based on how similar or different you are from the people portrayed in the media product?
  3. How does the commercial purpose (it's made for a profit right?) of Scooby Doo cartoons influence the content and how it's communicated?
  4. Who and what is shown in a positive light? In a negative light? Why might these people and things be shown this way?
  5. Who and what is not shown at all? What conclusions might audiences draw based on these facts?
  6.  "How does Scooby Doo explain crime and gender roles to young people"?
Huffington Post article on Daphne's Curse of going from size 2 to size 8
Huffington Post article on Beauty Stereotypes in Scooby Doo


B Block Physical Geography - So, Friday we looked at ozone but didn't really get to air quality. We'll also look at air pollution, specifically the anthropogenic additions to our atmosphere. We will look at the effects of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We'll also look at the Environment Canada Air Quality Index. 

For us in the Comox Valley PM2.5 pollution refers to very fine particulates - with a size generally less than 2.5 micrometres (µm). It is contained in pollution from gasoline and diesel vehicles as well as *woodsmoke* and industry. This microscopic material when breathed in can penetrate deep into the lungs and can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. This form of pollution is associated with health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, lung cancer as well as diabetes and dementia. High levels of PM2.5 pollution can trigger asthma attacks, heart attacks and other serious medical emergencies, and has a long term impact on lung function particularly in children.



For more information on Air Quality look at:
BC Air Quality Readings
Real Time Air Quality Index Map
The Habitable Planet: Air Pollution
Environment Canada Air Pollution site

National Public Radio site on the London "Killer Fog" of 1952
EPA website on acid rain

From Vox: Why India’s air pollution is so horrendous
Check out last year's article on CNN indicating that breathing in Delhi air is equivalent to smoking 44 cigarettes a day



Don't forget that every day we are going to start by looking at the synoptic forecast along with weather maps.
Data Streme
Envrionment Canada: Weather Office Comox

 
C/D Blocks Social and Environmental Sciences - Today you'll start with both Benton and Young (115).The Salish Sea is an inland sea that encompasses Puget Sound, the Georgia Strait and the Strait of Juan de Fuca (It received its official name back in 2010). The area spans from Olympia, Washington in the south to the Campbell River, British Columbia in the north, and west to Neah Bay and includes the large cities of Seattle and Vancouver. It measures 17,000 sq km and has 7470 km of coastline, with 419 islands and 8 million people calling the region home, including us. In addition, there are 37 species of mammals, 172 species of birds, 247 species of fish, and over 3000 species of invertebrate in the Salish Sea. From the Shaw Center for the Salish Sea:

A bio-rich inland sea and coastal land area of British Columbia and Washington State named for its original habitants,  the Coast Salish Peoples, and known for its keystone animals – the Southern Resident Orca and the Grizzly Bear. The Salish Sea Bioregion is a place where the deep Pacific Ocean meets the nutrient laden waters of the great watershed of the Coast Mountains and its largest river, the Fraser, and where rapidly flowing tidal currents create rich ecosystems supporting substantial animal and plant life.
This is a place of significant heritage and culture where people have interacted with the ocean and watershed for thousands of years and a place now home to 8 million people, including over 70 First Nations. It is a place of competing priorities, intricate ecosystems and compelling stories at the crossroads of ancient pathways and new directions.
Today we'll start with a brainstorming session on what you know about the people, places, and environments of the Salish Sea. Next we'll watch the first 10 minutes of the Living Salish Sea video below:

 
  This Living Salish Sea from Oceanus on Vimeo.

After this you'll be in the Learning Commons tracing a class based floor sized outline map of the Salish Sea (the map above from Stefan Freelan) and Benton and I will have you fill in some data on it, including the First Nations of the Salish Sea bio-region. 

 

Thursday, December 2, 2021

Friday, December 3. 2021

Today's schedule is ABCD

A Block Criminology - Scooby Doo...I'd like you to watch one of the most recent incarnation...Be Cool, Scooby Doo. We'll watch the episode "Poodle Justice" where Scooby gets to visit the set of his favorite TV show. Here, he meets the lovely dog actress star, Lady Annabelle (his celebrity crush). Unfortunately, he doesn't have the courage to talk to her, and to make matters worse, a gargoyle is scaring everyone off set. This sets us up for our deeper look into the franchise and the messaging it sends about crime and society. 

Scooby Doo Mystery Incorporated S01 E23 A Haunting in Crystal Cove


I'll have you watch this and then for Monday's blog consider the questions below (about Scooby Doo in general including Scooby Doo Where are You?, The Scooby Doo Show, Scooby Doo and Scrappy Doo, What's New Scooby Doo, Scooby Doo! Mystery Incorporated, and Be Cool Scooby Doo):


  1. What assumptions or beliefs do Scooby Doo’s creators have that are reflected in the content?
  2. How does this make you feel, based on how similar or different you are from the people portrayed in the media product?
  3. How does the commercial purpose (it's made for a profit right?) of Scooby Doo cartoons influence the content and how it's communicated?
  4. Who and what is shown in a positive light? In a negative light? Why might these people and things be shown this way?
  5. Who and what is not shown at all? What conclusions might audiences draw based on these facts?
  6.  "How does Scooby Doo explain crime and gender roles to young people"?
Huffington Post article on Daphne's Curse of going from size 2 to size 8
Huffington Post article on Beauty Stereotypes in Scooby Doo


Now although Scooby Doo is fun, we need to look at it through a more critical eye. So, take a look at the elements of Media Literacy...Not only are media constructions (made by humans) but that the receiving audience interprets the meaning of the message themselves. Remember, Scooby Doo is media and media are constructions - Media products are created by individuals who make conscious and unconscious choices about what to include, what to leave out and how to present what is included. These decisions are based on the creators’ own point of view, which will have been shaped by their opinions, assumptions and biases – as well as media they have been exposed to. As a result of this, media products are never entirely accurate reflections of the real world – even the most objective documentary filmmaker has to decide what footage to use and what to cut, as well as where to put the camera – but we instinctively view many media products as direct representations of what is real...now I know Scooby Doo is a cartoon, but for the questions above please Feel free to use the TV Tropes sites on Scooby Doo characters and Scooby Doo Analysis


B Block Physical Geography - Today we'll begin our look at stratospheric ozone and air pollution. Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth's upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be "good" or "bad" for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere. After looking at the ways that ozone protects us and understanding how it can be destroyed by CFCs you'll need to complete questions 8 and 9 from page 90 in your Geosystems textbook. We'll also look at air pollution, specifically the anthropogenic additions to our atmosphere. We will look at the effects of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We'll also look at the Environment Canada Air Quality Index. 

For us in the Comox Valley PM2.5 pollution refers to very fine particulates - with a size generally less than 2.5 micrometres (µm). It is contained in pollution from gasoline and diesel vehicles as well as *woodsmoke* and industry. This microscopic material when breathed in can penetrate deep into the lungs and can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. This form of pollution is associated with health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, lung cancer as well as diabetes and dementia. High levels of PM2.5 pollution can trigger asthma attacks, heart attacks and other serious medical emergencies, and has a long term impact on lung function particularly in children.



For more information on Air Quality look at:
BC Air Quality Readings
Real Time Air Quality Index Map
The Habitable Planet: Air Pollution
Environment Canada Air Pollution site
For more information on Ozone look at:
Environment Canada Ozone site
US Environmental Protection Agency Stratospheric Ozone page
NOAA Ozone depletion page
EPA Health Effects of Increased UV Radiation

National Public Radio site on the London "Killer Fog" of 1952
EPA website on acid rain

From Vox: Why India’s air pollution is so horrendous
Check out last year's article on CNN indicating that breathing in Delhi air is equivalent to smoking 44 cigarettes a day



Don't forget that every day we are going to start by looking at the synoptic forecast along with weather maps.
Data Streme
Envrionment Canada: Weather Office Comox


C/D Blocks Social and Environmental Sciences - You're with Benton looking at Orca (Killer Whales). Killer whales, (Orcinus orca) commonly called orcas, are found in all the world’s oceans, but the best known and most studied populations are those of the Pacific Northwest. The Killer Whale is the largest member of the dolphin family, Delphinidae. Its size, striking black and white colouring and tall dorsal fin are the main identifying characteristics. Killer Whales are mainly black above and white below, with a white oval eye patch, and a grey saddle patch below the dorsal fin.

All orcas are top predators, with complex social structures. As a species, killer whales feed on a variety of fish and marine mammals, but individual populations have become specialized to feed on particular prey species. In the Pacific Northwest one group of killer whales feeds exclusively on salmon. These are referred to as “residents” because they remain in inland or nearby coastal waters.  A second group, known as “transients,” feeds only on marine mammals. Transient orcas move north and south along the coast from Southeast Alaska and British Columbia as far south as Southern California, but they frequently make forays into the Salish Sea. A third population, known as “offshore orcas” inhabits the water well beyond the coast. Far less is known about offshore orcas, but recent observations show that sharks are an important part of their diet. 

The Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW) community consists of three pods (J, K, and L) totaling 74 whales (2 births last year - 2020). They are social groups of whales that share a maternal ancestor. For tracking purposes, each animal is identified by a pod letter and number. Like humans, killer whales breathe air, produce milk, take naps (although with only one brain hemisphere asleep) and create their own patterns of communication from a large repertoire of sounds. Hold up your hand; you are looking at a killer whale’s front flipper, with some external modifications. The bone structure underneath is very similar. And like us, killer whales lead complex social lives.

The total southern resident killer whale population is at its lowest point since the 1970s. Just 44 orcas have been born since 1998, and within the same time frame, 81 have died or disappeared. One captured the world’s attention in 2018, J35 (also known as Tahlequah), when she gave birth, then carried her dead calf for 17 days and more than 1,000 miles.

From the Center for Whale Research, at least 80% of the SRKWs' diet consists of Chinook salmon. Based on estimates of their food requirements, the average Southern Resident killer whale must consume 18-25 adult salmon daily just to meet its energy requirements. 

For more on the J, K, and L Pods check out:

 

Wednesday, December 1, 2021

Thursday, December 2, 2021

Today's schedule is DCBA

D/C Blocks Social and Environmental Sciences - First block we're in the Learning Commons / Library to finish up a few things. You have an Information graphic digital poster about a specific reef to finish. Remember it's a social media campaign so hashtags like #underwaterlife #coral #saveourseas #coralreef #ocean #underwaterworld #oceanforever #glowinggone #coralon #natureisspeaking and you should embed the html links for the websites you've used. You also have work past due, like "A Plastic Ocean" Question sheet, your study of the North Pacific gyre, ESRI - gyre plastic trash accumulation worksheet, and some of you haven't completed the wind driven ocean circulation activity. 


After, I'll have you fill in a chart on the seven types of plastic (PETE/HDPE/PVC/LDPE/PP/PS/Other) and we'll see what their environmental risks are, determine if they are recyclable and if there are any alternatives...like Recycling; Incineration; Biodegradable plastics; and Pyrolysis (plastic to diesel).

For the Comox Valley, in curbside "Blue Bin" pickup

You can recycle 

Plastic packaging for toys, batteries, etc. (separate plastic from paper backing)
Spiral wound cans and lids for frozen juice concentrate, chips, etc.
Plastic pails less than 25L for laundry detergent, ice cream, etc.
Plastic tubs for yogurt, margarine, etc.
Plastic jars for peanut butter, nuts, condiments, vitamins and supplements, etc.
Empty single-use coffee and tea pods (remove lids and do not include lids with recycling)
Rigid plastic packaging for toys, toothbrushes, batteries, etc. (remove paper backing and recycle separately)

You Cannot recycle

Packaging labelled biodegradable or compostable
Liquid-absorbing pads like in trays of meat, poultry, fish, etc.
Plastic kitchen/food wrap/film
Plastic blister packs, like plastic/foil protective packaging for chewing gum and pills
Ceramic plant pots
Lawn edging, tarps, plastic furniture or toys
Garden hoses
Plastic string or rope
Pails larger than 25L
Microwavable bowls with metal rims
Plastic or foil lids from coffee and tea pods

For the Comox Valley, at recycle depos "Return-It"

You can recycle

Bags for groceries, produce, dry bulk foods, frozen vegetables,
Bags for dry cleaning, bread, newspapers and flyers, water softener, salt, garden products, etc.
Overwrap for diapers, feminine hygiene products, paper towels & soft drink flats
Overwrap on mattresses, furniture and electronic equipment
Zipper lock pouches for frozen foods like prawns, berries, vegetables and fresh foods like fruit, deli meat, etc.
Zipper lock and tear-open pouches for cannabis product
Stand-up pouches for dried fruit and nuts, quinoa, grated cheese, dish detergent pods, etc.
Bags for potato chips, wrappers for cheese slices and candy bars, cereal bags
Packaging for dry pasta, pre-packaged deli meats
Net bags for avocados, onions, citrus fruit
Padded protective plastic like plastic shipping envelopes, bubble wrap, plastic air packets
Flexible packaging with plastic seals for fresh pasta, cheese, deli meats
Plastic seals, like those used on yogurt containers, are also accepted

You cannot recycle

Kitchen stretch wrap
Shrink wrap
Packaging labelled biodegradable or compostable
Lumber or construction wrap
Garbage bags (all colours)
Any bag sold as a product
Plastic squeeze tubes
Plastic-lined paper
Cellophane wrap
Plastic strapping
6-pack ring
Biodegradable plastic
PVC/vinyl
Squishy foam
Plastic blister packs e.g. plastic/foil protective packaging for chewing gum and pills

Currently (Starting November 22, 2021) collection of polystyrene foam packaging (both white and coloured) will be temporarily suspended from Recycle BC Depots. 

So what happens to your plastic recycling here in BC? The vast majority of plastic (containers, bags and overwrap) is processed in Metro Vancouver and turned into pellets and flakes that are sold to the plastics industry. However...


The general rule is, the lower the resin code, the more likely the plastic type is to be easily recyclable. Many plastic types can be recycled, even if the process is not widespread, however many plastics aren’t recycled simply because they aren’t easily recyclable. The difference in the recyclability of plastic types can be down to how they are made; thermoset plastics contain polymers that form irreversible chemical bonds and cannot be recycled, whereas thermoplastics can be re-melted and re-molded. Examples of non-recyclable plastics include bioplastics, composite plastic, plastic-coated wrapping paper and polycarbonate. Well known non-recyclable plastics include cling film and blister packaging.

Why aren’t all Plastics Recycled?

There are many economical, environmental and technical reasons as to why a plastic may not be recycled, on top of the way it was made. Thin bags or films run the risk of clogging machines if not separated properly, hence why curbside collections will not accept this mixed plastic recycling.

What Happens to Plastic that isn’t Recycled?

Most commonly, landfill. However plastic waste can often be repurposed or reused, meaning it is diverted from landfill for a period of time, i.e. plastic bags can be reused multiple times before disposal.

“In order to reduce our plastic use, always consider an alternative to a plastic item offered.  You can do this with The 4-Rs to Rethinking Plastic:

Refuse: single use plastics end up in our oceans, so ask for alternatives that can be used again.
Reduce: Is it possible to reduce your plastic footprint by eliminating the amount of plastic    products used?
Re-use: if you can’t use an alternative to plastic, make sure you re-use it where possible and   dispose of responsibly.
Recycle: If you must purchase plastic, opt for items that are recyclable to reduce additional material ending up in landfills. From a sustainability perspective, recycling remains one of our key solutions. Recycling reduces our requirement on virgin plastics (thereby reducing our consumption of oil, as plastic is made from oil) and also prevents used plastic from ending up in the environment.


So, I'd like you to complete a plastic audit at home. What type of plastic is in your recycling? What company is it from? Is it actually recyclable? How much of your plastic did you throw away because it wasn't recyclable?


B Block Physical Geography - Today, I'll answer some weather questions you may have and then we'll look at the composition and vertical structure of the atmosphere focusing on the bottom two layers (Troposphere and Stratosphere) through this we'll complete the Atmosphere in the Vertical activity along with a few questions on the atmosphere. The atmosphere can be divided into layers based on the atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles (the way these quantities change with height). Atmospheric temperature drops steadily from its value at the surface, about 290K (63°F; 17°C), until it reaches a minimum of around 220K (–64°F;–53°C) at 6 mi (10 km) above the surface. The atmosphere has 4 layers: the troposphere that we live in near the surface of the earth; the stratosphere that houses the ozone layer; the mesosphere, a colder and lower density layer with about 0.1% of the atmosphere; and the thermosphere, the top layer, where the air is hot but very thin.




A Block Criminology - Over the next two weeks we'll look at Mass Media Theories and Media Literacy. Today we'll look at the elements of Media Literacy...Not only are media constructions (made by humans) but that the receiving audience interprets the meaning of the message themselves.

  1. Media are constructions - Media products are created by individuals who make conscious and unconscious choices about what to include, what to leave out and how to present what is included. These decisions are based on the creators’ own point of view, which will have been shaped by their opinions, assumptions and biases – as well as media they have been exposed to. As a result of this, media products are never entirely accurate reflections of the real world – even the most objective documentary filmmaker has to decide what footage to use and what to cut, as well as where to put the camera – but we instinctively view many media products as direct representations of what is real.

2. Audiences negotiate meaning - The meaning of any media product is not created solely by its producers but is, instead, a collaboration between them and the audience – which means that different audiences can take away different meanings from the same product. Media literacy encourages us to understand how individual factors, such as age, gender, race and social status affect our interpretations of media.

 3. Media have commercial implications - Most media production is a business and must, therefore, make a profit. In addition, media industries belong to a powerful network of corporations that exert influence on content and distribution. Questions of ownership and control are central – a relatively small number of individuals control what we watch, read and hear in the media. Even in cases where media content is not made for profit – such as YouTube videos and Facebook posts -- the ways in which content is distributed are nearly always run with profit in mind.

4. Media have social and political implications - Media convey ideological messages about values, power and authority. In media literacy, what or who is absent may be more important than what or who is included. These messages may be the result of conscious decisions, but more often they are the result of unconscious biases and unquestioned assumptions – and they can have a significant influence on what we think and believe. As a result, media have great influence on politics and on forming social change. TV news coverage and advertising can greatly influence the election of a national leader on the basis of image; representations of world issues, both in journalism and fiction, can affect how much attention they receive; and society's views towards different groups can be directly influenced by how – and how often – they appear in media

5. Each medium has a unique aesthetic form - The content of media depends in part on the nature of the medium. This includes the technical, commercial and storytelling demands of each medium: for instance, the interactive nature of video games leads to different forms of storytelling – and different demands on media creators – that are found in film and TV. 

So...

Some of us will have started out watching crime through the relatively innocent eyes of Scooby Doo. As you know, Scooby Doo is a long-running animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions (and now Cartoon Network Studios) from 1969 to 1991 and 2002 to present highlighting the hi jinx of Scooby-Doo and four teenagers: Fred "Freddie" Jones, Daphne Blake, Velma Dinkley, and Norville "Shaggy" Rogers. These five drive around the world in a van called the "Mystery Machine," and solve mysteries typically involving tales of ghosts and other supernatural forces. At the end of each episode, the supernatural forces turn out to have a rational explanation (usually a criminal of some sort attempting to scare people away so that he/she could commit crimes).  Main versions include:

Scooby-Doo and Guess Who? (2019-?)
Be Cool, Scooby Doo (2015-2018)
Scooby Doo, Mystery Incorporated (2010-2013)
What’s New Scooby Doo (2002-2006)
The New Scooby and Scrappy Doo Show (1983-1984)
Scooby Doo and Scrappy Doo (1979-1982)
The Scooby-Doo Show (1976-1978)
Scooby Doo Where Are You (1969-1970)
There are some other versions we will never discuss...like ever!


So today I'd like you to watch the most recent incarnation...Be Cool, Scooby Doo. We'll watch the episode "Poodle Justice" where Scooby gets to visit the set of his favorite TV show. Here, he meets the lovely dog actress star, Lady Annabelle (his celebrity crush). Unfortunately, he doesn't have the courage to talk to her, and to make matters worse, a gargoyle is scaring everyone off set. This sets us up for our deeper look into the franchise and the messaging it sends about crime and society. 

Tuesday, November 30, 2021

Wednesday, December 1. 2021

Today's schedule is BADC

B Block Physical Geography - Quiz time. Today is your Geomorphology quiz and if you prepared I'm certain you'll do fine. You may use your work/note package to help. There are 22 multiple selection questions in total which should take you about a half hour to 40 minutes to complete. What are we doing for the rest of the class? Oh today we start with weather, the best topic ever! I'll have you brainstorm a list of things you know (or think you know) about weather and then I'll try to answer questions you've always wanted answered about the topic. I'm so excited to be starting weather! Hail, lightning, tornadoes, and hurricanes are four on "the list" get ready, it's going to be a bumpy ride. Why study weather, besides the fact that it is awesome...yes it is and you know it, maybe because it can impact our lives significantly. From the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters (2021)…In 2021 (as of October 8), there were 18 weather/climate disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion each to affect the United States. These events included 1 drought event, 2 flooding events, 9 severe storm events, 4 tropical cyclone events, 1 wildfire event, and 1 winter storm event. Overall, these events resulted in the deaths of 538 people and had significant economic effects on the areas impacted. The 1980–2020 annual average is 7.1 events; the annual average for the most recent 5 years (2016–2020) is 16.2 events.


Every day we are going to start by looking at the synoptic forecast along with weather maps.


A Block Criminology - So, to curb the power of cartels or gangs should we take some radical action? Should we cut off their source of income (like drugs and sex trade workers)? Here are two questions for you to answer:
  1. Should drugs be legalized? Why? If you believe drugs should be legalized, think about whether all drugs should be legalized or just a select few. Why should certain drugs be legalized and others not? 
  2. Should prostitution be legalized? Why? If you believe it should be legalized, should all the forms of prostitution described in your text be legalized, or only a select few? If prostitution were legalized should government be able to exercise some control over it? 
For the legalization of drugs question as you probably already know, the federal government legalized non-medical cannabis on October 17, 2018. So why? Part of the reason was that the proceeds from the illegal drug trade support organized crime and greater threats to public safety, like human trafficking and hard drugs.

For more check out this Vice article here or the video below..


Now it's not all sunshine and rainbows but 20 years ago, in 2001, Portugal decriminalised the personal possession of all drugs as part of a wider re-orientation of policy towards a health-led approach. Possessing drugs for personal use is instead treated as an administrative offence, meaning it is no longer punishable by imprisonment and does not result in a criminal record and associated stigma. Check out the article here.


For the sex trade question "Should we legalize prostitution"? Think about the two opposing views:
  • Sexual Equality View The prostitute is a victim of male dominance. In patriarchal societies, male power is predicated on female subjugation, and prostitution is a clear example of this gender exploitation 
  • Free Choice View Prostitution, if freely chosen, expresses woman’s equality and is not a symptom of subjugation.
To help, we will understand the different types of sex trade workers (street walkers, circuit travelers, bar girls, brothels, call girls and escort services). It is important to note:

The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's anti-prostitution laws in a unanimous decision, and gave Parliament one year to come up with new legislation — should it choose to do so. In striking down laws prohibiting brothels, living on the avails of prostitution and communicating in public with clients, the top court ruled that the laws were over-broad and "grossly disproportionate." The government replaced the law with Bill C-36 (2014) which received Royal Assent and became law on December 6, 2014. These laws are being challenged once again in the Supreme Court of Canada. To find out more check out more on the escort agency challenge here.


C/D Blocks Social and Environmental Sciences - All Benton today and your topic is FISH! To start, you'll be looking at the Herring Fishery in the Salish Sea from ecological and economical perspectives. Pacific herring play a critical role in the coastal ecosystem. They transfer energy from phyto and zooplanktons to larger marine animals including fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Herring feed Chinook and Coho salmon, Lingcod, Halibut, and marine mammals like seals and humpback whales. Our Southern Resident killer whales (SRKWs) feed on Chinook salmon, so herring feed salmon and salmon feed whales. This will link us to our topic for the Salish Sea activity next week.



A really good resource is the Pacific Wild Campaign "Protect Pacific Herring" In 2021 the Georgia Strait, in the Salish Sea, is the only Herring fishery on the west coast of Canada open through the DFO IFMO. From Pacific Wild's report...

For thousands of years, herring had been abundant on the British Columbia coast. Prior to industrial fishing, herring were being fished by Indigenous people using sustainable fishing methods, keeping the returning herring population in abundance. The current Integrated Fisheries Management Plan and the common framework used to manage herring is based on an incomplete picture of past herring populations. The baseline used for estimating biological parameters starts in 1951, when in fact, industrial herring fishing began decades earlier. Four out of five Pacific herring fisheries have collapsed. The Strait of Georgia holds the last remaining commercial fishing grounds with the current 2020/2021 IFMP allowing a quota of 20% the assessed biomass. 

First Nations have a long history of sustainably harvesting herring roe for trade and consumption using a method that involves collecting eggs that have been deposited on kelp or hemlock branches suspended near the shore. Such a method allows the spawning herring to live on and spawn again or be eaten by predators, therefore maintaining the herring’s critical ecosystem function.

The traditional First Nations spawn on kelp (SOK) fishery involves the suspension of hemlock branches, kelp fronds, and seaweeds in sheltered spawning areas. Female herring lay eggs in multiple layers on the leaves. When harvesters collect the SOK, the adult fish are left to spawn again in the future. In contrast, the “sac roe” fishery, industrial seine and gillnet boats net schools of herring just before spawning. The roe, which is only 12% of the catch on average, is removed from the female fish for export to Japan. Most of the carcasses from the male and female fish are processed into feed for Atlantic salmon raised in open net-pens. Speaking of salmon...not Atlantic but Pacific

Wild salmon are a pillar of the Pacific Ocean’s ecosystem, Canada’s economy, and BC First Nations peoples’ cultural history. The wild salmon fishing industry contributes $500 million and 4,000 jobs to Canada’s economy. From Pacific Wild's Salmon Count campaign


Wild salmon are the lifeblood of the B.C. coast, connecting and feeding the ocean and forest. Each spring, young salmon swim from river to sea, where they grow and feed killer whales, sea lions, and a multitude of marine animals. In autumn, bears, wolves, eagles, gulls, and other wildlife gather in estuaries and along rivers to feast on adults returning to spawn. The end of the salmon life cycle brings an essential surge of ocean-derived nutrients to the trees and mycorrhizal networks below ground that line the banks of each river. These marine nutrients transported by salmon have been found in the tops of trees and have been correlated with higher abundance and diversity of birds. Wild salmon literally feed the forests we love.

There are five species of Pacific salmon common to British Columbia waters: Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, Sockeye salmon, Chum salmon, and Pink salmon. Chinooks are also known as King salmon or Spring salmon are the largest of the Pacific BC salmon. Once hatched, a juvenile Chinook salmon will spend between two and 12 months in freshwater, depending whether it is an “ocean-type” or a “stream-type”. They then can live five or more years in the ocean (but typically three or four) before returning to spawn. Coho salmon spend the first one to two years of their life in the river system. They return to spawn after one to three years in the ocean. The Sockeye life cycle consists of one to three years in freshwater followed by two to three years in the ocean. As juveniles, Chum salmon are only one to three months in freshwater. They spend another two to four years in the ocean. Chum also grow larger than Sockeye. Pink salmon are the smallest of the Pacific salmon and not surprisingly, they also have the shortest life cycle: they migrate to the ocean within the first two months after hatching and return two years later. All Pacific salmon are “semelparous”; that is, they spawn only once in their lifetime. After they have laid and fertilized their eggs and their spawning mission is complete, their bodies deteriorate further and they eventually die.

Pacific salmon are in a long-term decline, with many runs verging on collapse as they struggle to survive climate change, habitat destruction and overfishing. According to one estimate, some populations have dropped by as much as 93 percent since the early 1990s. Lately, the situation has grown dire. In 2018, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada assessed sixteen chinook populations in southern BC and warned that half were at risk of disappearing. Nearly 60 per cent of the province's commercial salmon fisheries, once the economic and cultural backbone of the B.C. coast, were forced to shutter in 2021

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