Monday, February 19, 2018

Tuesday, February 20. 2018

Today's schedule is C-D-A-B

C Block Criminology 12 - Today we start with our first quiz in the course...RELAX I'm sure you'll do fine. There is a bonus question for you should you choose to complete it will be on the last page of the quiz for you. After the quiz, we will focus on the impact that crime has on victims. We'll try to examine the impacts of crime on victims (both short and long term)




I'll go over some notes with you on this and we'll try to understand how violence and violent crime (out next topic in the course) is a traumatic event that impacts human lives.

D Block Human Geography 11 -Today we'll try to answer the Key Questions "Where are Migrants Distributed and Why Do People Migrate?" We'll look at the difference between a migrant and a refugee. We'll look at in-migration (immigration to) and out-migration (emigration from) and patterns of international migration. We'll look at a brief history of immigration policy in Canada (Hint hint it's kinda Eurocentric up to the late 1960's), Zelinski's migration transition (what stages of the DTM do we find in and out migration) and lastly push and pull factors for migration. You'll have some work to complete for me in your week 4 package that you'll get today.





A Block Law 12 - Today we'll examine the collective rights of Canada's Aboriginal/First Nations people. We'll talk about the significance of the Calder v. Attorney-General of British Columbia, 1973 decision. From the Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project:

The decision in Calder v Attorney-General of British Columbia was handed down by the Supreme Court of Canada on 31 January 1973. It is often credited with having provided the impetus for the overhauling of the land claims negotiation process in Canada. The case was initiated in 1968 by the Nisga'a Tribal Council against the Government of British Columbia. It failed both at trial and in the Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court overturned the Court of Appeal's finding in recognising the possible existence of Aboriginal rights to land and resources, but was equally divided on the issue of whether the Nisga'a retained title. The decision prompted the federal government to develop new policy to address Aboriginal land claims. In 1976 Canada commenced negotiations with the Nisga'a Tribal Council. British Columbia did not join the negotiations until 1990. The Nisga'a Final Agreement was concluded in 1999 and implemented by legislation in 2000.

After, we'll talk about the LGBT community in Canada and the Civil Marriage Act (which legalized same-sex marriage in Canada on July 20, 2005) and finally we'll take a closer look at Human Rights and how they are enforced in Canada.

To finish, I'll have you work on: Questions 1-4 on page 94:

1. Explain the difference between civil rights and human rights.
2. How do prejudice and stereotyping lead to discrimination?
3. Explain the difference between a complainant and a respondent.
4. What is the difference between intentional and unintentional discrimination?
Questions 4 & 5 from page 97
4. Explain the concept of a poisoned work environment. Provide an example.
5. Explain the difference between accommodation and undue hardship.
AND Question 5 from page 104
5. What types of remedies are available under human rights law?

For more on the BC Human Rights Code look at the Attorney General's Human Rights Protection site. For more on the Canadian Human Rights Act see the Canadian Department of Justice site. For more on Human Rights in Canada see the Canadian Human Rights Commission.

B Block Introduction to Law 10 - Today we have the library booked in order to continue work on our serial killer research activity which is due next Monday in class. When you have completed the research for this assignment then you can print off your work and start to assemble your poster.

When looking for the typology of Serial Killers (for your assignment) consider the following excerpt from the book Serial Murder and the Psychology of Violent Crimes:

Serial Murder by Holmes, R. M., & DeBurger, J. E. (1988) identifies the following

1.Visionary Type—these murderers kill as a result of command hallucinations, delusions, or visions whose sources customarily include the forces of good or evil. These offenders are typically psychotic, leaving the crime scene in utter disarray. The homicides occur quickly with no extensive acts of torture. Frequently, the assailant relies on weapons of opportunity to commit his crimes and discards or locates the death instrument(s) in the victim’s body.

2. Mission-Oriented Type—the goal for these slayers is to kill certain types of people or to rid society of particular types of individuals. These serial murderers target victims based on their ethnicity, occupation (e.g., prostitutes), and/or age. Additionally, they determine whom to assail based on whether the person is deemed unworthy, undesirable, or somehow less than human. To illustrate, Jack the Ripper targeted prostitutes and viewed them as disposable. He dehumanized their bodies through mutilation in the process of killing them. In a letter written to the press by Jack the Ripper, he stated, “I am down on whores and shan’t quit ripping them.” Typically, the murders occur quickly and they are often planned. The mission-oriented offender does not engage in postmortem activities such as necrophilia or dismemberment and the weapon employed is not disposed of at the crime scene.

3. Hedonistic Type—these offenders murder as a result of sensation seeking or otherwise derive some sort of pleasure from their killings. Holmes and Holmes divided this type of assailant into two subcategories: the lust killer and the thrill killer. Both are summarily described below.

The lust killer murders principally for sexual gratification even if this does not entail traditional intercourse. However, sex or multiple sadistically erotic acts with a live victim are common. Sexually arousing behavior is the driving force for this offender, even after the person has killed the victim. Moreover, this attacker may also be sexually excited and/or satisfied from the murder itself. Ritualistic displays of sexual mutilation, facial disfigurement, cannibalism, body dismemberment, vampirism, and necrophilia are routinely featured in this type of homicidal act. The body is often concealed and the murder weapon taken. Close contact murder; specifically, beating or manual strangulation, are noted as most common.

The thrill killer murders for the visceral excitement the assailant experiences. However, once the victim is dead, the offender loses complete interest. As a result, the process of killing is prolonged as long as possible through extended acts of torture. The use of restraints and the presence of bite marks and burns on the victim’s body are characteristic behaviors for this type of slayer. Sadistic acts whose frequency is prolonged as long as possible prior to death, a concealed corpse, manual or ligature strangulation, and an animated victim during multiple sexual acts all characterize the patterns and motives of this type of assailant. manual or ligature strangulation, and an animated victim during multiple sexual acts all characterize the patterns and motives of this type of assailant.

4. Power/Control Oriented Type – these offenders harbor deep-seated feelings of inadequacy or attempt to compensate for a perceived lack of social or personal mastery over themselves by thoroughly dominating their victims. Holmes and DeBurger maintained that the primary motive for these offenders is not sexual in nature. Instead, these assailants desire complete and unfettered control over and subjugation of their powerless victims, including during the postmortem period. Consequently, torture, the use of restraints, strangulation, severed body parts, and decapitation are all routinely featured in these homicidal acts. A profound sense omnipotence – having the ultimate power of life or death over one’s victims as they cower and plead for their lives – fuels this type of serial killer. The act of murder is extended in order to increase the felt sense of gratification. The offender’s modus operandi is planned and organized, the body is concealed, and the weapon is absent.

Sunday, February 18, 2018

Monday, February 19. 2018

Today's schedule is A-B-C-D

A Block Law 12 - We had a wide ranging discussion on women's rights on Friday. It took the class and we're not really finished it. So since we didn't get to it could you please work on the following questions:

1. What are some of the current barriers to equality facing women?
2. What is pay equity?
3. How are different jobs compared under pay equity?
4. What is employment equity?
5. What groups are protected under employment equity laws?

Check Friday's blog post for links to help and when there's time we'll watch The Fire Within: The Secret Battles of Female Firefighters

B Block Introduction to Law 10 - Today we'll venture off to the library to begin work on a small project about nasty people. It will be your job to create a poster on a serial killer.

INTRODUCTION TO LAW 9/10 SERIAL KILLER POSTER ASSIGNMENT
Select a criminal from the list below and discuss your selection with me to obtain approval to proceed with your research no later than Today. No more than two students may choose the same criminal and your selection of a criminal is on a first-come, first-served basis. Prepare a poster on your criminal that must include the following information:

1. Name of the criminal (including an image of them) along with any aliases they may have.
Summary (not details) of the crime(s) the criminal committed, with corresponding dates (year only) of the crimes.
2. Explain the type of victim that the criminal sought
3. Explain how the criminal was caught (by whom & how? What led to his/her capture?)
4. Indicate the criminal's background, childhood, method of committing the crime, and characteristics which cause the criminal to fit within the particular theory you selected.
5. State, define, and explain the criminological theory, (classical, biological, psychological, sociological, or integrated) which explains the criminal's behaviour
6. State which serial killer category the criminal is: mission-oriented, hedonistic, visionary, power/control, thrill killer, expedience killer; (and define whichever category you select)...More on this on tomorrow's blog entry

List:
Robert William Pickton
Clifford Olson
John Wayne Gacy
Ted Bundy
Dennis Rader (BTK)
David Berkowitz (Son of Sam)
Jeffrey Dahmer
Gary Ridgeway (Green River Killer)
Henry Lee Lucas & Otis Toole
Richard Ramirez (Night Stalker)
Aileen Wurnos
Dorothea Puente
Karla Homolka & Paul Bernardo
Genene Jones (Angel of Mercy)
Ed Gein
Angelo Buono & Kenneth Bianchi (Hillside Stranglers)
The Zodiac Killer
Robert Hansen
Wayne Williams
Edmund Emil Kemper III
Charles Ng & Leonard Lake
Coral Eugene Watts
Cary Stayner
John Allan Mohammad & Lee Boyd Malvo (Beltway Snipers)
Danny Rolling (Gainesville Ripper)
Joel Rifkin
Randy Kraft
Albert Fish
Kenneth Allan McDuff

Here are a few links to help you get started:
5 Myths about Serial Killers and Why They Persist
Biography: Serial Killers
How Stuff Works Serial Killer Web Site
Federal Bureau of Investigation Serial Killers site
Kari Sable serial killers site
Internet Crime Archives
Mind of a Killer
About.com Serial Killer web site
Mental Floss Female Serial Killer Web site 
Serial Killers

C Block Criminology 12 - Today your journal / blog entry is to answer the following:

Now that you know about trends in crime in relation to age, gender and class...Do you think that school is one of the most dangerous places for young people in society today? When you answer this question consider the following self-report survey...

Within the last 12 months have you:
  1. Stolen anything under ten dollars ($10) in value
  2. Stolen anything between ten ($10) to fifty ($50) dollars in value
  3. Stolen anything over fifty dollars ($50) in value
  4. Trespassed on private property
  5. Purposefully broken or damaged public or private property
  6. Purposefully spray painted “tagged” public or private property
  7. Deliberately set fire to something
  8. Forcibly entered a house or building
  9. Consumed any hallucinogenic drugs (marijuana, peyote, PCP “angel’s dust”, LSD “acid”)
  10. Consumed any stimulant drugs (methamphetamine, cocaine, crack)
  11. Consumed and depressant drugs (heroin, morphine, barbiturates)
  12. Been drunk in a public place while underage
  13. Bought or sold any drugs
  14. Driven a car that wasn’t yours without permission
  15. Violated the terms of your driving conditions (“N” OR “L”)
  16. Driven while under the influence of alcohol
  17. Been involved in a fist fight
  18. Hit someone with a weapon (stick, rock, bat)
  19. Verbally threatened someone with the intent to intimidate
  20. Held or detained someone against their will
  21. Been a victim of an unprovoked assault
  22. Had someone threaten to physically harm you
  23. Been a victim of sexual contact without your consent
  24. Had something stolen from you under ten dollars ($10) in value
  25. Had something stolen from you between ten ($10) to fifty ($50) dollars in value
  26. Had something stolen from you over fifty ($50) dollars in value
  27. Had any of your property damaged or broken
  28. Been a victim of discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, gender, or sexual orientation
  29. Known someone who has been the victim of a crime
Broaden your scope a little and do not necessarily focus on Vanier for this question. Think about other Canadian, British Columbian or Comox Valley high schools and generalize your response a bit. Don't forget that you'll need to find a story to back up your point of view here (either one about how little crime exists in schools or one that demonstrates that schools are somewhat dangerous places). More info to help:
RCMP: School Violence
Stats Can Youth Offending in Canada
Youth Crime In Canada which states:
  • In 2006, 1 in 10 youth crimes were committed on school property
  • Crimes at school include bullying and violence
  • Assaults are particularly common representing about 30% of all violations committed by youth on school property. Uttering threats constituted another 8%
  • Nearly 20% of crimes committed at school were drug offences, whereas 5% of youth crimes committed elsewhere were drug-related. Youth drug offences taking place on school grounds usually involved the possession (78%) or trafficking of cannabis (10%)

D Block Human Geography 11 - Today we're back in the library for our last day looking at 2017 World Population Data (using both the PRB Interactive Map and the pdf data sheet) to see current trends and numbers in world population. You have a webquest with questions in your week 3 work package to answer. You may work with a partner to find answers to the 17 questions but you all need to record answers. Use:

2017 World Population Data Map
2017 World Population Datasheet

For the last question you'll need to choose one of the following demographic variables using the World Population Data Sheet and create a choropleth map showing the distribution of that indicator on a world outline map:

Infant Mortality
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Total Fertility Rate
Life Expectancy

The instructions are in the week 3 package but feel free to ask me in class today. The PRB World Population Data map is an example of a Choropleth Map. Use it to help you create yours, just select the indicator you wish to create and it will make a choropleth map that you can recreate. Good luck!

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Friday, February 16. 2018

Today's schedule is A-B-C-D

A Block Law 12 - Today we'll review the difference between prejudice and discrimination. We'll look at discrimination in Canada focusing on the Persons case and women's issues of injustice connected employment and pay equity, sexual harassment, and discrimination against pregnant women. I'll have you work on the following questions:

1. What are some of the current barriers to equality facing women?
2. What is pay equity?
3. How are different jobs compared under pay equity?
4. What is employment equity?
5. What groups are protected under employment equity laws?

From our discussion yesterday, Supreme Court orders female firefighter rehired
From the Canadian Human Rights Reporter:
The Supreme Court of Canada held that the Government of British Columbia's aerobic standard used to test the fitness of forest firefighters discriminated on the basis of sex, and further that the Government failed to show that the discriminatory standard is justified as a bona fide occupational requirement ("BFOR").



After that we'll talk about the methods of enforcing rights guaranteed under the Charter (section 52 of the Constitution Act and Section 24 of the Charter). We'll look at the differences between "strike down", "read down" and "read in".

B Block Introduction to Law 10 - Today I'll have you watch a Fifth Estate episode called "The Unrepentant", from the CBC Fifth Estate website...

They are marked by their ability to kill without passion and without remorse. Some are called psychopaths - a term that evokes nightmare images of murderers and monsters. But the label can also apply to men and women who are successful, intelligent, charismatic, charming and amusing - and so all the more dangerous. This week on the fifth estate, Linden MacIntyre looks at what makes a psychopath through the fifth estate's close encounters with of four of Canada's most frightening criminals.


The fifth estate begins with "Lightning" Lee, a former kick-boxer who brutally victimized women and children who was described as a "textbook psychopath." The other criminals MacIntyre takes on didn't outwardly seem to be the type - the respected commander of an air force base, Russell Williams; and Karla Homolka, who convinced police and a psychiatrist she was a victim, even though she helped her husband assault and kill young girls, including her own younger sister. Finally, MacIntyre revisits the harrowing story of two teenaged friends who conspired to murder one of their families and were caught in a controversial RCMP sting. They are all disordered personalities, whose lack of empathy and shame inspires both fear and fascination.

C Block Criminology 12 - Some people think that since there is so much crime happening they feel the need to take on crime themselves. There are some costumed "super-hero" vigilantes in Seattle - members of the Rain City Superhero Movement. Check out the Seattle PI article on them here. You can check out the article and video from Good Morning America on Phoenix Jones broken nose here. You can watch the Young Turks video on the Rain City Superheroes here.

 And we'll watch the full doc  here...


D Block Human Geography 11 - Today's key question is "Why Does Population Growth Vary among Regions"? and it's kind of an important one to look at. Although population rates vary among countries, the model for a similar process of change in a society’s population is the demographic transition. So we'll look at the model...it looks like this:

This weekend I'll have you fill in the chart on the week three work package with characteristics describing each stage in the demographic transition model (CBR, CDR, NIR, etc.) along with the amount of growth of each stage (low, high, decreasing (aka moderate) etc. Consider Bulgaria. Bulgaria is projected to have the fastest-shrinking population in the world. It's already lost a fifth of its population since the 1990s. But what does this mean for those who remain? Bulgaria's dwindling population numbers happen in part because a lot of young adults have left the country so the birth rate is low but the Bulgarian government does not see immigration as a possible solution to the country's dwindling population. So...stage 4 (maybe 5) in the DTM. What should they do?

You'll also need to look at the ideas of Thomas Malthus (Malthusian theory)

I'll have you fill in a chart on the various theories of population growth and we end with this question:

Paul and Anne Ehrlich argue in The Population Explosion (1990) that a baby born in a developed country poses a greater threat to sustainability than a baby born in a developing country because people in developed countries place much higher demands on the world’s supply of energy, food, and other limited resources. Do you agree with this view? Why or Why not?

Today and tomorrow we're in the library (or using the netbooks) looking at 2017 World Population Data (using both the PRB Interactive Map and the pdf data sheet) to see current trends and numbers in world population. You have a webquest with questions in your week 3 work package to answer. You may work with a partner to find answers to the 17 questions but you all need to record answers. Use:

2017 World Population Data Map
2017 World Population Datasheet

For the last question you'll need to choose one of the following demographic variables using the World Population Data Sheet and create a choropleth map showing the distribution of that indicator on a world outline map:

Infant Mortality
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Total Fertility Rate
Life Expectancy

The instructions are in the week 3 package but feel free to ask me in class today or Monday. Good luck!

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

Thursday, February 15. 2018

Today's schedule is D-C-B-A

D Block Human Geography 11 - Today I lose you to the North Island College Open House. FYI, just in case you were thinking about NIC as an option, the course your taking now is kinda like  GEO-112 Introduction to Human Geography

GEO 112 critically examines the complex relations between people and places through key themes and concepts in the cultural, urban and economic fields of human geography. Topics to be studied include: local and popular cultures and landscapes, disappearing peoples, concepts of nature, the agricultural revolutions, global agricultural restructuring, agribusiness, food security, urban and suburban processes, development issues in the less developed world, barriers to and the costs of economic development, globalization, deindustrialization, and social change in the world system.
And to help you with your question about the Florida Everglades and the Netherlands from week (last week) check out:
 

C Block Criminology 12 - Today I'll have you work on three questions from yesterday about crime trends:

  1. Using pages 37 to 46 in the CRIM textbook outline and explain the crime patterns in relation to ecology, firearms, social class, age, gender and race.
  2. What is a chronic offender and what is the significance of Marvin Wolfgang's discovery (why is identifying the chronic offender important)?
  3. How would you explain the gender differences in the crime rate (why do you think males are more violent than females)? 
After a bit we'll talk about victims of crime. Every day we have specific routines we engage in. Many of these routines are tailored to preventing us from becoming victims of crime. We do things like lock our doors, watch where we walk at night, or avoid walking alone. We take these actions because at some level we are afraid of the possibility of being a victim of crime. Despite taking these actions people often fall prey to crime in Canada. So what do we know about victimization?

  1. Women were at higher risk than men of being victims of a violent crime
  2. Age was the key risk factor in violent victimization
  3. Drug use, binge drinking and the frequency of evening activities were associated with the risk of violent victimization
  4. Mental health was associated with the risk of violent victimization
  5. People who suffered child maltreatment were more likely to be victims of a violent crime
  6. People with a history of homelessness were more likely to report being a victim of a violent crime
  7. The risk of violent victimization was higher among people residing in a neighbourhood with low social cohesion
  8. Aboriginal people, in particular women, were more likely to be victims
  9. One-quarter of violent incidents took place at the victim’s place of work
  10. The majority of offenders were male and, on average, in their early thirties
  11. Most victims knew their attacker
  12. Most violent incidents did not involve weapons and did not result in physical injury
  13. Low social cohesion was associated with a higher risk of household victimization
  14. Households residing in apartments or condos were less likely to be victimized by household crime
  15. The size of the household was linked to the risk of victimization
  16. One incident in five resulted in losses of $1,000 or more
  17. Most incidents of victimization did not come to the attention of the police

B Block Introduction to Law 10 - So today we'll continue our look at profiling and both the benefits and pitfalls of it. Let me state up front that yesterday was another bad day for our neighbour to the south of us. Seventeen (17) people were murdered at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland Florida. This is just another really, really tragic event in an unfortunate series of mass shootings. The Parkland shooting is now among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history. Our topic yesterday and today was/is the differences in motives among serial and mass murder and how profiling can be good or bad here. With that in mind I hope you take a moment to honour those who lost their lives yesterday. Canada is not immune, in 1989 at É​cole Polytechnique in Montreal Marc Lépine murdered 14 women and last year Alexandre Bissonnette murdered 6 people and injured 8 others at a Mosque in Quebec City.

If you remember we were discussing ASPD along with Psychopathy and Sociopathy and I mentioned that in movies and TV shows (yes, I'm talking about you Criminal Minds), psychopaths and sociopaths are usually the villains who kill or torture innocent people. In real life however, while some people with antisocial personality disorder can be violent, most are not. Some experts see sociopaths as “hot-headed”, acting without thinking how others will be affected while psychopaths are more “cold-hearted” and calculating, plotting their moves, using aggression in a planned-out way to get what they want. So, many (NOT all) prolific and notorious serial killers are psychopaths.
Dr. Robert Hare of the University of British Columbia created a checklist called the PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist Revised) which we'll examine along with the "Unholy Trinity" of serial killer characteristics (AKA The Macdonald triad or the triad of sociopathy or the homicidal triad) and today we'll watch a video on how profiling was developed in the F.B.I. Behavioural Science Unit (through the efforts of many highlighted by the work of John Douglas) today. The first part of the video focuses on Wayne Williams and then looks at Robert Hansen. Don't forget that in Canada the R.C.M.P. call the technique criminal investigative analysis.

As for Mass Murder check out:

1,516 mass shootings in 1,735 days
Mass Shooting Tracker
Gun Violence Archive

and for help with why check out:

Why are most mass murderers men?
A terrifying link between mass murder and domestic violence
Mass Shootings in the United States: 2009-2016
Why mass shootings keep happening
Mental Illness Is Not the Main Cause of Mass Shootings in America
Scientists Try To Explain What Makes A Mass Murderer
Why Better Mental-Health Care Won't Stop Mass Shootings

A Block Law 12 - Today  we'll talk about the Parkland Florida shootings that took place yesterday. For more look above at the junior law class.

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Wednesday, February 14. 2018

Happy Valentines Day family; Today's schedule is B-A-D-C-Flex

B Block 9:00 – 10:00
AG 10:05 – 10:15
A Block 10:20 – 11:20
Lunch 11:20 – 12:00
D Block 12:05 – 1:05
C Block 1:10 – 2:10
Personalized Learning 2:10 – 3:15

B Block Introduction to Law 10 - Today we'll finish up work on our "Typical Victim" of Assault. Who will most likely be assaulted and why? Now you are taking information and enhancing stereotypes for the people you are drawing. The stereotypes you're basing your drawings on are an example of profiling. In terms of profiling, we'll spend time discussing the differences between mass and serial murder. We will look at profiling and begin to understand what a psychopath is. Dr. Robert Hare of the University of British Columbia created a checklist called the PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist Revised). We'll examine the "Unholy Trinity" of serial killer characteristics and today we'll watch a video on how profiling was developed in the F.B.I. Behavioural Science Unit (through the efforts of many highlighted by the work of John Douglas) today.

A Block Law 12 - To start the class we'll talk about equality and look at section 15 of the Charter. After that we'll look at the difference between prejudice and discrimination. We'll look at discrimination in Canada focusing on the Persons case and women's issues employment and pay equity, sexual harassment, and discrimination against pregnant women. I'll have you work on the following questions:

1. What are some of the current barriers to equality facing women?
2. What is pay equity?
3. How are different jobs compared under pay equity?
4. What is employment equity?
5. What groups are protected under employment equity laws?

D Block Human Geography 11 - Today we'll try to answer the Key Question "Why Is Global Population Increasing"? Geographers most frequently measure population change in a country or the world as a whole through three measures -  crude birth rate, crude death rate, and natural increase rate and we'll look at those today along with measures of fertility and mortality along with population pyramids.


You'll have some questions to work on for me in order to understand our key concept:

  1. About how many people are being added to the world’s population each year?
  2. How does the TFR in your family compare to the overall figure for North America? 
  3. Match the Country with the population pyramid and explain why (Canada, Chad & Germany)
  4. Name a type of community that might have a lot more males than females. Why so?
We'll also play around a bit on Gapminder to visualize these statistics


C Block Criminology 12 - You now know that the crime data indicate that rates have declined significantly in the past few years and are now far less than they were a decade ago. One of the major suspected causes for the crime rate drop is the age structure of society; the number of young males in Canada is lower than before and the data sources show relatively stable patterns in the crime rate. Ecological patterns show that crime varies by season and by urban versus rural environment, however there is evidence of gender patterns in the crime rate: Men commit more crime than women. Age is one of the largest influences on crime; young people commit more crime than the elderly (and there are fewer young people in society). Crime data show that people commit less crime as they age, but the significance and cause of this pattern are still not completely understood.

Although police-reported crime in Canada (measured by the Crime Severity Index CSI) increased for the second year in a row in 2016, the national CSI increased only 1% but remained 29% lower than a decade earlier in 2006. Highlights of the Stats Can Report show:

  1. In 2016, the overall volume and severity of violent crime, as measured by the violent CSI, was virtually unchanged from the previous year.
  2. The overall volume and severity of non-violent crime, as measured by the non-violent CSI rose  2%  from the previous year (largely driven by increases in police-reported incidents of fraud).
  3. After notable increases in property offences in 2015, police-reported crime rates for all types of property crimes decreased or remained the same in 2016, with the exception of theft of $5,000 or under and total fraud. The rate of total fraud, which includes general fraud (+14%), identity fraud (+16%) and identity theft (+21%), was 14% higher than in 2015.
  4. Police-reported rates of cannabis-related drug offences declined for the fifth consecutive year in 2016. The rate of possession of cannabis declined 12% from 2015 
  5. The rate of impaired driving decreased by 3% in 2016 to 194 impaired driving incidents per 100,000 population, representing the fifth consecutive decline.

The slight increase in the national CSI between 2015 and 2016 was primarily driven by a continued increase in the rate of fraud (+14%). Increases in police-reported rates of administration of justice offences, sexual violations against children and child pornography were also reported. These increases were offset by fewer police-reported incidents of breaking and entering, mischief and robbery resulting in a slight increase to Canada’s CSI compared to 2015.
Between 2015 and 2016, 20 of 33 of Canada’s census metropolitan areas (CMAs) reported increases in their Crime Severity Index (CSI). Calgary, which had the largest increase in CSI in 2015 (+30%), reported a 6% decline in 2016 primarily driven by decreases in breaking and entering and robbery. Similarly, of the other four CMAs which had recorded the largest increase in 2015, Victoria (-12%), Abbotsford-Mission (-5%) and Moncton (-4%) also reported declines in their CSIs in 2016. In Edmonton, however, crime continued to increase (+3%) as a result of increases in theft of $5,000 or under and fraud.Regina (125.8) and Saskatoon (117.8) were the CMAs with the highest CSIs in 2016, as has been the case since 2010. Relatively high CSIs were recorded in Edmonton (105.7), Winnipeg (103.9), Kelowna (100.3), Vancouver (94.3) and Abbotsford-Mission (91.4). These seven CMAs also had the highest police-reported crime rates in 2016

 Today I'll have you work on three questions about crime trends:
  1. Using pages 37 to 46 in the CRIM textbook outline and explain the crime patterns in relation to ecology, firearms, social class, age, gender and race.
  2. What is a chronic offender and what is the significance of Marvin Wolfgang's discovery (why is identifying the chronic offender important)?
  3. How would you explain the gender differences in the crime rate (why do you think males are more violent than females)?