Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Thursday, February 7. 2013

Today's schedule is D-AG-C-B-A

C Block Social Studies 10 - Today we'll continue looking at how to read a map focusing on direction, scale, and distance. First you can start with finishing yesterday's questions 2,3,4 & 5a on page 3 & 4 as well as questions 1-4 on page 7 of the Geographic Understandings book.

For direction you'll need to work on questions 1-4 on pages 8 & 9 and for scale & distance you'll need to work on question 4 on page 17 and question 1 on page 18.

Take a look at the following websites for help with time zones:
Time for Time
Time and Date
From Stargazers to Starships
NOVA: The Search for Longitude

Royal Astronomical Society Calgary: Latitude and Longitude
US National Atlas - Latitude and Longitude

B Block Social Studies 11 - We'll start today by going through some definitions (direct democracy and constitutional monarchy), then we'll begin looking at the "Division of Powers" and then we'll finish our look at Federalism with challenges to it (think regionalism from yesterday). We'll take a diagram down about the structure of our government and then we'll look at the legislative branch of government. No homework tonight! For more information on the Federal system of governance (Federal, Provincial, and Municipal division of powers check out the following websites:
Governor General of Canada
The Federal Government
The Constitution Act 1982

A Block Law 9/10 - Today I`ll give you a handout on Classical, Biological, Sociological and Interactionist crime theory. You will need to evaluate the theories (what you like about them and what you disagree with them about)...don't worry we'll go through them together in class today. After, you'll have to complete part two of today's assignment - this means you need to create your own theory of why crime happens. Remember you need to use the brainstormed list we did in class along with part one of the assignment (analysis of classical, biological, sociological, and interactionist theories).

Below you'll find some notes on Choice, Trait, Social Structure, Social Learning, and Conflict theories:

Choice Theory
Choice theories assume that criminals carefully choose whether to commit criminal acts. People are influenced by their fear of the criminal penalties associated with being caught and convicted for law violations.The choice approach is rooted in the classical criminology of Cesare Beccaria, who argued that punishment should be certain, swift, and severe enough to deter crime.

Today, choice theorists view crime as offense- and offender-specific. Offense-specific means that the characteristics of the crime control whether it occurs. For example, carefully protecting a home makes it less likely to be a target of crime. Offender-specific refers to the personal characteristics of potential criminals. People with specific skills and needs may be more likely to commit crime than others. Research shows that offenders consider their targets carefully before deciding on a course of action. Even violent criminals and drug addicts show signs of rationality.

Trait Theory

One area of interest is biochemical factors, such as diet, allergies, hormonal imbalances, and environmental contaminants (such as lead). The conclusion is that crime, especially violence, is a function of diet, vitamin intake, hormonal imbalance, or food allergies. Neurophysiological factors, such as brain disorders, ADHD, EEG abnormalities, tumors, and head injuries have been linked to crime. Criminals and delinquents often suffer brain impairment, as measured by the EEG. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and minimal brain dysfunction are related to antisocial behavior.

An evolutionary branch holds that changes in the human condition, which have taken millions of years to evolve, may help explain crime rate differences. As the human race evolved, traits and characteristics have become ingrained. Cognitive psychology is concerned with human development and how people perceive the world. Criminality is viewed as a function of improper information processing. Individual reasoning processes influence behavior. Reasoning is influenced by the way people perceive their environment. Psychological traits such as personality and intelligence have been linked to criminality. One important area of study has been the antisocial personality, a person who lacks emotion and concern for others.

Social Structure Theories

Social structure theories suggest that people’s place in the socioeconomic structure influences their chances of becoming criminals. Poor people are more likely to commit crimes because they are unable to achieve monetary or social success in any other way. Social structure theory includes three schools of thought: social disorganization, strain, and cultural deviance theories. Social disorganization theory suggests that the urban poor violate the law because they live in areas in which social control has broken down. Strain theories view crime as resulting from the anger people experience over their inability to achieve legitimate social and economic success. Cultural deviance theories hold that a unique value system develops in lower-class areas. Lower-class values approve of behaviors such as being tough, never showing fear, and defying authority. People perceiving strain will bond together in their own groups or subcultures for support and recognition.

Social Process Theories

Social learning theory stresses that people learn how to commit crimes. Social control theory analyzes the failure of society to control criminal tendencies. Labeling theory maintains that negative labels produce criminal careers. Social learning theory suggests that people learn criminal behaviors much as they learn conventional behavior. Control theory maintains that all people have the potential to become criminals, but their bonds to conventional society prevent them from violating the law. This view suggests that a person’s self-concept aids his or her commitment to conventional action. Social reaction or labeling theory holds that criminality is promoted by becoming negatively labeled by significant others. Such labels as “criminal,” “ex-con,” and “junkie” isolate people from society and lock them into lives of crime.

Conflict Theory

Social conflict theorists view crime as a function of the conflict that exists in society. Conflict theorists suggest that crime in any society is caused by class conflict. Laws are created by those in power to protect their rights and interests. Marxist criminology views the competitive nature of the capitalist system as a major cause of crime. The poor commit crimes because of their frustration, anger, and need. The wealthy engage in illegal acts because they are used to competition and because they must do so to keep their positions in society.

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